God created the Sabbath (Genesis 2:1-3) during the first week of creation
In Accadian times.
It was known as a 'dies nefastus,' a day on which certain work was forbidden to be done.
In ancient Babylon it was known as the Sabattu, 'day of rest for the soul,'
In patriarchal times.
The patriarchs new about the 7 day week so it is quite obvious they were familiar with the Sabbath (Genesis 7:4, 8:10, 8:12, 29:27, 50:10)
It was kept by Abraham (Genesis 26:5) for it is quite clear that there was some knowledge of God’s precepts before it was codified at Mt Sinai.
It was kept by the Israelites, before the law existed. (Exodus 16:23)
It was added to the Ten Commandments when the law was given (Exodus 20:8-11.)
From the conquest to the captivity.
The Sabbath was often broken; this brought the Babylonian captivity. (Jer 17:20-27)
After the Babylonian captivity.
There was a restoration of keeping the Sabbath (Nehemiah 13:17, 18).
The Maccabean times
It was so strictly kept, that some died rather than defend themselves from their enemies.
By this time so many rules had been added to the Sabbath it was a burden.
Jesus proceeded to restore the Sabbath to its original purpose. (Mark 2:23-28)
It was kept by Jews, gentiles, all the apostles, even Paul (Acts 13:42, Acts 17: 2.)
It was kept by all the Christians well into the fourth century
From apostasy to reformation.
Outside the Roman Catholic Church many Christian groups were Sabbath keepers.
From reformation to present
As more religious liberty was gained, more Christians begun to keep the Sabbath.
Sozomen is one of many writers who wrote that Christians still kept the Sabbath.
Sabbath keeping was diminishing by this time (Ancient Christianity Exemplified)
From the 7th century till the 10th Century
The Celtic churches and the Nestorians were known Sabbath keepers.
From the 11th till the 13th Century
The Paulicians, Petrobusinas, Passaginians and Insabbatati were Sabbath-keepers.
From the 14th Century till the 15th Century
Sabbath keeping groups sprouted in many areas and regions. The Nazarenes, Cerinthians, Hypsistari, Cathari, Toulousians, Albigenses, Passagii, Waldenses and other sects.
The 16th century till 19th Century
Sabbath keeping Anabaptists, Quakers, puritans and other groups abounded.
The 20th Century
In this last century Sabbath keeping has continued. Groups that keep the Sabbath are the Adventists, Church of God, some Baptists, some Pentecostals and some other groups.
According to (Isaiah 66:22-23) the Sabbath will be kept forever.