Home
< <--- Beginning <--- Chap 14 === Chap 16 ---> Ending --->>

XV. ANCIENT WRITERS PROVIDE EVIDENCE

 

The library of Caesarea: The famous and legendary library of Caesarea was begun around 230 AD by Origen, who collected ancient books for over 20 years, Origen went on to create a large collection of biblical manuscripts. During a Christian persecution, Origen was arrested, imprisoned, and tortured, but survived the persecution. Many years after his death Origen was condemned for not believing in the trinity and his numerous writings were destroyed. Only a few heavily interpolated texts by Rufinus have survived.

After the death of Origen his disciple Pamphilus took over the library. Pamphilus had more resources available than Origen; so in his zeal for a sacred library, he expanded the library at great financial cost and diligently searched throughout the world for ancient manuscripts. Jerome said, “The Hebrew [Matthew] itself is preserved to this day in the library at Caesarea, which the martyr Pamphilus so diligently collected.”, so it seems that Pamphilus had acquired an early copy of the Gospel of Matthew or perhaps the original text itself. Pamphilus was correcting biblical texts and writing books even while in prison; the New Testament texts that he transcribed from his library had a good reputation for being correct.

At the death of Pamphilus, Eusebius his disciple inherited the library of his schoolmaster. Eusebius had learned well the craft of copying and correcting Biblical texts from his teacher Pamphilus, so that he developed a reputation for knowing well the New Testament. Eusebius has been sometimes called the most learned man of his era, thanks in part to the extensive library that he owned and Eusebius later became the bishop of Caesarea.

During the persecution of 303 AD it is most probably that some of the sacred scriptures were taken from this library and were burned by roman officials. The library at one time held around 30,000 books with many of them ancient biblical manuscripts; but through the centuries suffered damage and was finally destroyed in the 7th century by the Arab invasion. It is speculated that during the long siege, many of the books were taken from the library by fleeing citizens and clerics. The library of Eusebius of Caesarea (2003) by Dr. Andrew James Carriker.

 

The writings of Eusebius: Eusebius (263 - 339) Bishop of Caesarea inherited an extensive library, from his teacher Pamphilus, which had very early copies of the gospels and many original writings. Eusebius has been sometimes called the most learned man of his time, he wrote much on church history for that he is known as the father of church history, and is reputed to be able to discriminate between reliable and unreliable sources. He was considered a wise and honest critic of historical text sources. Eusebius was a friend of the Emperor Constantine and wrote In praise of the Emperor Constantine an obvious pandering piece. Eusebius had such a reputation for knowing and transcribing the correct text of the New Testament, that years later the emperor Constantine personally commissioned him to produce 50 Bibles for the churches in Constantinople.

 

The First Council of Nicaea, 325: Because there was disagreement over the nature of God, the emperor Constantine called for a council in Nicaea to resolve the issue. Of around 1800 bishops between 250 to 318 of them attended the invitation. At this First Council of Nicaea twenty-two bishops, came as supporters of Arius. At first the emperor sided with the Arians, but later on as the Arians begun losing ground and persuaded by his ecclesiastical adviser Ossius the Bishop of Cordova, the Emperor switched sides and sided with Athanasius and his supporters.  The Nicene Creed was created by a small group and then signed by 218 bishops many of them hesitating about it. At Nicaea Eusebius of Ceasarea tried to bring an agreement between the Orthodox and the Arians, but failed to achieve it. When the Nicene Creed was formulated Eusebius was reluctant about it. He was accused of being an Arian and was nearly excommunicated for heresy by Alexander of Alexandria, so fearing the repercussions; he submitted and agreed to the Nicene Creed. Eusebius was afraid for this same Alexander used threats of torture against people. The Ecclesiastical History Of Salaminius Hermias Sozomenus, Book II. Chap. XVII

Those bishops [Eusebius of Nicomedia, Theognis of Nica (Nic'a) and Maris of Chalcedon] who opposed and rejected the Nicene Creed were declared heretics and exiled. Arius and two of his unyielding partisans (Theonas of Marmarica and Secundus of Ptolemaïs) were deposed and exiled to Illyricum.  All the writings of Arius were ordered destroyed by the Emperor with the penalty of death for anyone keeping his writings. When later Constantine realized that the Nicene decisions were contrary to the spirit of the church majority and conflicted with the desires of the masses in the East he assumed a more favorable attitude toward Arianism. We can see that even though the Arian view lost at Nicaea, it was the majority view of the churches in the west and also of the east. History of the Byzantine Empire (1958) by Historian Alexander A. Vasiliev

 

After the council of Nicaea of 325 Eusebius wrote “This we have been forced to transmit to you” about the doctrinal decisions made at Nicaea, which clearly shows that he was not in full agreement. Some historians mention that some bishops including [Eusebius bishop of Caesarea in Palestine, Theodotus of Laodicea, Paulinus of Tyre, Patrophilus of Scythopolis, Athanasius of Anazarbus, Narcissus of Neronias in Cilicia, Gregorius of Berytus, Menophantus of Ephesus, Aetius of Lydda, and other bishops of the East] had agreed reluctantly to the creed but were never comfortable with it or the results of the Nicaea Council.  (Constantine and Eusebius (2006) by Professor of Classics Timothy David Barnes; The Post-Nicene Greek Fathers (1883) by Minister George Anson Jackson; History of the councils of the church (1872) by Theologian Karl Josef von Hefele; Eusebius, Judaism and Christianity (1992) by Professor of divinity Harold W. Attridge, A World History of Christianity (1999) edited by Church historian Adrian Hastings)

 

Eusebius quotes the early book of Matthew that he had in his library in Caesarea. According to this eyewitness of an unaltered Book of Matthew that could have been the original book or the first copy of the original of Matthew. The Demonstration Evangelica 312 A.D. (1920) by Eusebius as translated by W. J. Ferrar

Eusebius gives the text of Matthew 28:19 as this "Go and make disciples of all the nations in my name."Eusebius: The history of the church from Christ to Constantine (1995) P. 111 by G. A. Williamson, "a simpler, perhaps a more primitive form." If Eusebius had only given one citation in this manner then it could easily been dismissed as a onetime oddity, but he cited the same text at least 18 times and over 100 allusions linking the name of Jesus to the great commission in his writings.

 

The following quotes from Eusebius clearly indicate that his text of Matthew had a different ending than what is now considered the traditional text. We need to keep in mind a few things in mind about him.

1) He had a library with many ancient manuscripts and early gospel’s copies.

2) He had a Hebrew Gospel of Matthew (Original?) (According to Jerome)

3) He was an Arian and many Arians baptized in the name of Jesus.

4) He had learned from Pamphilus the correction of corrupted texts.

5) He had a reputation for transcribing faithful copies of the scriptures.

6) He was known for his knowledge of the text of the New Testament.
7) Jesus support his version for he often said “in my name”

8) The Apostles support his version for they did things “in his name”
9) The writings of the Apostles support his version of “in my name”

10) Many earlier Aprocrhypal writings support his version of “in my name”

 

The Proof of the Gospel: (1920) Translation by William John Ferrar.

Some translations are from the Nitrian Codex of the British museum,

by Dr. Samuel Lee.

 

Demonstratio Evangelica (The Proof of the Gospel) Book 3

  1. 3:6 With one word and voice He said to His disciples: "Go, and make disciples of all the nations in My Name, teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you." And He joined the effect to His Word;

  2. 3:7 Whereas He, who conceived nothing human or mortal, see how truly He speaks with the voice of God, saying in these very words to those disciples of His, the poorest of the poor: "Go forth, and make disciples of all the nations." "But how," the disciples might reasonably have answered the Master, ...But while the disciples of Jesus were most likely either saying thus, or thinking thus, the Master solved their difficulties, by the addition of one phrase, saying they should triumph "In MY NAME."

  3. 3:7 For He did not bid them simply and indefinitely make disciples of all nations, but with the necessary addition of "In My Name." And the power of His Name being so great, that the apostle says: "God has given him a name which is above every name, that in the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth,"
     
  4. 3:7 He shewed the virtue of the power in His Name concealed from the crowd when He said to His disciples: "Go, and make disciples of all nations in My Name." He also most accurately forecasts the future when He says: "For this gospel must first be preached to all the world, for a witness to all nations."
    These words were said in a corner of the earth then, and only those present heard it. How, I ask, did they credit them, unless from other divine works that He had done they had experienced the truth in His words? Not one of them disobeyed His command: but in obedience to His Will according to their orders they began to make disciples of every race of men, going from their own country to all races, and in a short time it was possible to see His words realized.

  5. 3:7 I am irresistibly forced to retrace my steps, and search for their cause, and to confess that they could only have succeeded in their daring venture, by a power more divine, and more strong than man's, and by the co-operation of Him Who said to them: "Make disciples of all the nations in My Name."… You yourself will recognize what power their word has had, for the Book of the Acts agrees with their having these powers, and gives consistent evidence, where these men are reported by their power of working miracles by the Name of Jesus to have astonished the spectators present.

Demonstratio Evangelica (The Proof of the Gospel) Book 9

  1. 9:11 And He says to them, "The kingdom of God shall be taken away from you, and shall be given to a nation bearing the fruits of it." And He bids His own disciples after their rejection, "Go ye and make disciples of all nations in My Name.''

Theophania Book 4

  1. 4:16 Our Saviour said to them therefore, after His resurrection, "Go ye and make Disciples of all nations in My Name,"

Theophania Book 5

  1. 5:17 But, if one so dared; still he brought not the matter to effect. He (the Saviour) said in one word and enouncement to His Disciples, "Go and make disciples of all nations in My Name, and teach ye them every thing that I have commanded you."

  2. 5:46 He again put forth the word of God in the precept, which He gave to these His powerless Disciples, (viz.) "Go ye and make Disciples of all nations!" It is likely too, His Disciples would thus address their Lord, by way of answer: How can we do this ? … And, What power have we upon which to trust, that we shall succeed in this enterprise? These things therefore, the Disciples of our Saviour would either have thought, or said. But He who was their Lord solved, by one additional word, the aggregate of the things of which they doubted, (and) pledged them by saying, “Ye shall conquer in My Name.”

  3. 5:46 For it was not that He commanded them, simply and indiscriminately, to go and make Disciples of all nations; but with this excellent addition which He delivered, (viz): "In My Name." Since it was by the power of His Name that all this came to pass; as the Apostle has said, "God has given Him a name, which is superior to every name: that, at the name of Jesus, every knee should bow which is in heaven, and which is in earth, and which is beneath the earth."

  4.  5:49 I am again compelled to recur to the question of (its) cause, and to confess, that they (the Disciples) could not otherwise have undertaken this enterprise, than by a Divine power which exceeds that of man, and by the assistance of Him who said to them, "Go, and make Disciples of all nations in My Name."

Church History Book 3

  1. 5:2 But the rest of the apostles, who had been incessantly plotted against with a view to their destruction, and had been driven out of the land of Judea, went unto all nations to preach the Gospel,  relying upon the power of Christ, who had said to them, “Go ye and make disciples of all the nations in My Name.”

The Oration of Eusebius in Praise of Emperor Constantine Chapter 16

  1.  16:8 Surely none save our only Saviour has done this, when, after his victory over death, he spoke the word to his followers, and fulfilled it by the event, saying to them, “Go, and make disciples of all nations in My Name.” He it was who gave the distinct assurance, that his gospel must be preached in all the world for a testimony to all nations, and immediately verified his word: for within a little time the world itself was filled with his doctrine.

Commentary on the Psalms  (from Bernard H. Cuneo; The Lord's Command to Baptize, An Historico-critical investigation with special reference to the works of Eusebius of Caesarea).

14.  Psalms 65:5-6 "Hence we should rejoice in him, who by his power endureth forever. We should understand these words of that saying of Christ: 'All power is given to me in heaven and on earth. Going make disciples of all the nations in My Name.'"

15.  Psalms 67:34 "That Christ's voice was endowed with power is evident from his, deeds; for when he said to his disciples: 'Come, follow me, and I shall make you fishers of men," he actually fulfilled this promise by his power; and again when he commanded them saying: 'Going make disciples of all the nations in My Name,' he manifested his power in very deed."

16.  Psalms 76:20 "From the preceding verse we learn that the earth shook and trembled. This was realized when Christ entered Jerusalem, and the entire city was in consternation; also when the nations of the world trembled upon hearing the words of the Gospel from the lips of the Apostles. How should we understand the prophet when he says that Christ's way is in the sea, and his paths in many waters, and his footsteps will not be known? This passage receives light from his promise to his disciples: 'Going make disciples of all nations in My Name,' and, 'Behold I am with you all days even to the end of the world.' For throughout the entire world, invisibly present to his disciples, he traveled on the sea of life, and in the many waters of the nations. This he accomplished by his invisible and hidden power."

Commentary on Isaiah- (from Bernard H. Cuneo, The Lord's Command to Baptize, An Historico-critical investigation with special reference to the works of Eusebius of Caesarea).

17.  Isaiah 18:2 "This command seems to be given to the disciples of our Savior. Since they are messengers of good tidings, they are called messengers, and light ones, to distinguish them from the apostles of the Jews. Wherefore the prophet addresses these messengers of good tidings thus: You disciples of Christ, go as the Savior himself has commanded you; 'Go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel,' and 'Going make disciples of all the nations in My Name.'"

18.  Isaiah 34:16 "For he who said to them, 'make disciples of all the nations in My Name,' also forbad them to establish churches in one and the same place."

 

Allusions, Look carefully at the key words mentioned in the Great Commission.

[Go, and make disciples of all the nations in My Name] Matthew 28:19

[Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel...In my Name] Mark 16:16-17

 The following citations could be taken as allusions or veiled references to Matthew 28:19.  Look at how similar their wording is to Matthew 28:18-20

 [Go  / Make disciples-preach the gospel / all the nations-all the world / In my Name-His Name] [unto the end]

 

Against the life of Apollonius

19.  IV-Thanks to his divine and mysterious power, [All power is given unto me]...his divine teaching [preach]…easily won over by him [make disciples]…the divine doctrine [gospel]…. for ages without end all over the inhabited world [all the nations]…invocation of his mysterious name [in My Name].

 

Demonstratio Evangelica (The Proof of the Gospel) Book 2

20.  2:3 the choir of the Apostles, and those of the Hebrews who believed in Christ, were preserved from among them as a fruitful seed, and going [Go] through every race of men in the whole world, [all the nations] filled every city and place and country with the seed of Christianity [Gospel] and Israel, so that like corn springing from it, the churches [disciples] which are founded in our Saviour's name [in his name] have come into being.

Demonstratio Evangelica (The Proof of the Gospel) Book 3

21.  3:5 But to preach to all the Name of Jesus, [in my name] to teach [and make disciples] about His marvellous deeds in country and town [Gospel], that some of them should take possession (the Roman Empire, and the Queen of Cities itself, and others the Persian, others the Armenian, that others should Go to the Parthian race, and yet others to the Scythian, that some already should have reached the very ends of the world, [of all the nations] should have reached the land of the Indians, and some have crossed the Ocean and reached the Isles of Britain.)

Theophania Book 3

22.  3:4 and, that his name should fill the hearing [Preach], and tongues of every people upon the face of the whole earth [of all the nations]? But this, no man has done excepting our Saviour alone, who said to his disciples by word, and fulfilled it by deed: "Go and teach all nations." He said (also) to them,--what He had foretold and previously revealed,--that it was necessary His Gospel should be preached throughout the whole creation, for a testimony [witness] to all nations. And, with the word, He brought the deed also to pass: for, immediately,--and not at a great distance of time,--the whole creation was filled with His words [teachings]!

Theophania Book 4

23.  4:9 On one occasion indeed, He said, that "in His Name should be preached repentance to all nations."

Theophania Book 5

24.  5:26 By What power too, did they [the Apostles] effect that which they undertook? It might have happened indeed, that some rustics at their own homes would be perverted and led astray [and make disciples]. But, that they (the Disciples) should be sent forth [Go] into foreign countries [all the nations], and should not relinquish their object through remissness, but should preach the name of our Saviour [in my name] to every man…to the Persians …Armenians…Parthians…Scythians…Hindoos. [Every creature]

25.  5:46 It is likely therefore, that He would shew forth the Excellency of the unseen power, which was hidden from the many, by His name; and, (accordingly) He made the addition, "In My Name." He thus accurately foretold moreover, something which should come to pass, (when) He said, "It is expedient that this my Gospel be preached in the whole world, for the testimony of all nations."

The Oration of Eusebius in Praise of Emperor Constantine Chapter 15

26.  15:7 The reason of this is clear. It was needful that his disciples should receive ocular proof of the certainty of that resurrection on which he had taught them to rest their hopes as a motive for rising superior to the fear of death. It was indeed most needful that they who purposed to pursue a life of godliness should receive a clear impression of this essential truth: more needful still for those who were destined to [go] declare his name in all the world [all the nations], and to communicate [teach-make disciples] to mankind that knowledge of God [Gospel] which he had before ordained for all nations.

27.  Psalms 59:9 “According to another explanation, the words Sichem, Galaad, Manasses, Ephraim, Juda, Moab, and Edom represent all nations indiscriminately. The Jews are mentioned in the first place, because to them first should the kingdom of God be announced; but after them Christ commanded his disciples to [go] preach the Gospel ‘to all the nations in his Name.’”

Direct references (My Name = 18) +

Allusions (My Name =1) (his Name =4) (the Name of our Saviour =1) (the Name of Jesus =1)

(in our Saviour's name=1) (his mysterious name=1) Total = 27

 

Indirect References: Eusebius quoted the Book of Matthew the most (at least 47 direct citations) so it is obvious that it was his favorite book and he knew it well. Throughout his books Eusebius mentions the fulfillment of this great commission to the gentiles many times and gives many examples that show this prophetic fulfillment according to him, and often explains the power of his name. If Eusebius before the Council of Nicea had the traditional form of the great commission it is highly doubtful that he would have shied away from using it. In all his voluminous writings there is never a mention or a hint of the “The Father, Son and Holy Ghost” not only in a baptismal context but in any context at all, prior to Nicea. It is like he had never heard that phrase at all; otherwise it would have been mentioned in some manner in his writings.

Anyone who suggests that Eusebius was abbreviating the great commission, has obviously not read Eusebius, for the man was longwinded and verbose and tended to actually expand and over explain the great commission. Many people have failed to see all the many mentions of the great commission in Eusebius because his verbosity creates a forest of words that hides the message. I have shortened many of his citations, so that people can see these indirect references to the Great Commission, but anyone is free to look at the original writings and see them in their complete looong form.

It is quite obvious from his early writings that he had a simplified text of Matthew 28:19. Most probably when he was citing Matthew he was using the older Hebrew manuscript which was left to him by Pamphilus and not a newly corrupted Greek manuscript.

There are over 100 indirect references by Eusebius which used similar wording as the Great Commission. Think about this, over 100 mentions of the great commission yet zero mention of the triune phrase. He said nothing in those commission texts about the Father or the Holy Spirit there is nothing in there about them, even if he was shortened his citation of Matthew 28:19, he should have at least once made a reference to the father or the Holy Spirit. It is incredible that he would make all those citations without hinting at anything like the traditional text, if he had the traditional text available; obviously he did not have such text. Because it would be overly redundant to list all his citations only 10 more sample passages of the over 100 passages are presented below here; but all the rest can be found in our ministry web page. www.apostolic-bible.com

Look at how the following passages of Eusebius that echo the fulfillment of his text of Matthew 28:19.

[Go, and make disciples of all the nations in My Name]

 

28.  Demonstratio Evangelica (The Proof of the Gospel) Book 1

1:4 For out of Sion shall go forth a law, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem. And all the nations shall go...the Gospel, "going forth from Sion" through our Saviour Jesus Christ[His name] and going through all the nations?…the law of the new covenant began and from thence went forth and shone upon all, according to the commands which He gave his disciples when He said: "Go ye, and make disciples of all the nations, teaching them to observe all things, whatsoever I have commanded you."

 

29.  Demonstratio Evangelica (The Proof of the Gospel) Book 2

2:3 “the oracle shall be fulfilled which said that all men [all the nations] should call no longer on their ancestral gods, nor on idols, nor on daemons, but on the Name of the Lord [His name] and shall serve Him [disciples]…of the new Covenant of Christ [Gospel]

 

30.  Demonstratio Evangelica (The Proof of the Gospel) Book 3

3:6 “a power of holiness as the disciples of Jesus [His name]...having discovered Him to bear forth that knowledge, to unveil it, to supply it, and to preach it to all men among all races of the world,…the instruction given by these men there are among all the nations of the earth many multitudesworship Him only [his disciples], and base their whole theology on Christ

 

31.  Demonstratio Evangelica (The Proof of the Gospel) Book 4

4:16 “the return of Christ (Who is named) or of God to heaven, and His Teaching heard like thunder by all, and…the apostles of Christ, of Whom it is written …"The Lord will give a word to the preachers of the Gospel with much power." Here, also, he mentions Christ by name, humanly known as our Saviour, Whose horn he says shall be exalted, meaning His invisible Power and Kingdom…And in my Name shall his horn [Kingdom] be exalted."

 

32.  Demonstratio Evangelica (The Proof of the Gospel) Book 5

5:5 “many multitudes from all the earth, that is to say from all the nations of the earth, have ceased to fear daemons as before, and have feared the Lord Jesus, and all the inhabitants of the world have been moved at the Name of Christ, [His name] agreeably to the oracle which here says, "Let the earth fear the Lord: By him shall be moved all the inhabitants of the world.”

 

33.  Demonstratio Evangelica (The Proof of the Gospel) Book 6

6:2 “the preaching of the Gospel heard in all the world. [all nations] For as the trumpet is the loudest of all musical instruments, it seems a fit symbol to shew forth that the teaching given to all men about Christ is proclaimed in stronger and louder tones than any other teaching has ever been, by which as by a trumpet for the hearing of all men

 

34.  Demonstratio Evangelica (The Proof of the Gospel) Book 7

7:1 “He would be accepted by us Gentiles and prove Himself our source of salvation and of the knowledge of God…we Gentiles that believe on Him, [disciples] vanquished by the truth and power of Him Who is God with us,…in the very ends of the earth, according to the prophecy which says, "Obey even at the ends of the earth." Yet though we obey Him and hear His call, the prophecy as it proceeds must refer to those nations that do not yet believe”

 

35.  On the Celebration of the Pascha

“By the "crop," he was referring to the calling of the nations; and by the "new loaves," he was referring to the souls presented to God by Christ[His name], the churches from the nations, [disciples] in which the greatest festival [Pentecost] is celebrated in honor of the God who loves mankind. We have been harvested by the spiritual sickles of the Apostles, [Acts 2] and have been gathered together into the churches everywhere in the world
{7 number of perfection} {7x7 =49+1 = 50=Pentecost}

 

36.  Praeparatio Evangelica Book 1

1:3 “our present discourse proclaiming [preaching] to all men the good tidings [Gospel] of all the grace of God and His heavenly blessing, and accrediting in a more logical way by very many manifest proofs the dispensation of God concerning our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.”

 

37.  Praeparatio Evangelica Book 4

4:4 “how can the great mystery of the Gospel dispensation…that all men from all quarters [all the nations] have been sailed back [disciples] by our Saviour's voice from the delusion…and that the men who dwell as far off as the ends of the earth…delusion in all the heathen nations…temples truly venerable, and schools of true religion have been raised up in honour of the Absolute Monarch and Creator of the universe in the midst of cities and villages by the power and goodness of our Saviour throughout the whole world…according to the divine doctrines of salvation, are day by day continually offered up by all nations

 

And many, many, many more

 

Another important issue about Eusebius that goes beyond the simple citations is the actual arguments and emphasis he places upon the name of Jesus. Here is a sample of his many similar arguments.

“Whereas He, who conceived nothing human or mortal, see how truly he speaks with the voice of God, saying in these very words to those disciples of His, the poorest of the poor: Go forth, and make disciples of all the nations. But how, the disciples might reasonably have answered the Master, can we do it? But while the disciples of Jesus were most likely either saying thus, or thinking thus, the Master solved their difficulties, by the addition of one phrase, saying they should triumph IN MY NAME. For He did not bid them simply and indefinitely 'make disciples of all nations,' but with the necessary addition 'In My Name.' And the power of His Name being so great, that the Apostle says: 'God has given him a name which is above every name, that in the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth.' He shewed the virtue of the power in His Name concealed from the crowd, when He said to His Disciples: 'Go, and make disciples of all nations in my name.”

 

It is clear that Eusebius could not make such kind of arguments if he had the traditional text.

 

The Letter of Pope Celestine to the Synod of Ephesus in 431 AD, basically quotes the Eusebian text in reverse, “whoever of us preach the name of the Lord in divers lands in their stead, for he said to them, Go, teach all nations.”

 

The writings of Justin Martyr: In the writings of Justin Martyr we often see a connection of the proclamation of the gospel with the name of Jesus. Although Justin Martyr did pronounce a baptismal formula similar to the traditional one, he did not cite it in the traditional way, which gives the impression that he did not know such traditional formula.

 

Here is a reference to Matthew 28:19, First Apology Ch. 39 “For from Jerusalem there went out into the world, men, twelve in number, and these illiterate, of no ability in speaking: but by the power of God they proclaimed to every race of men that they were sent by Christ to teach to all the word of God; and we who formerly used to murder one another do not only now refrain from making war upon our enemies, but also, that we may not lie nor deceive our examiners, willingly die confessing Christ”.

 

First Apology Ch. 42, “our Jesus Christ, being crucified and dead, rose again, and having ascended to heaven, reigned; and by those things which were published in His name among all nations by the apostles, there is joy afforded to those who expect the immortality promised by Him”

 

Here is another reference to baptism in First Apology Ch. 61, “The illuminand is also washed [baptized] in the name of Jesus Christ, who was crucified under Pontius Pilate” Early Christian Fathers (1953) by Dr. Cyril C Richardson.

 

Dialogue with Trypho, Ch. 39, “He has now neither yet inflicted judgment, nor does inflict it, knowing that daily some [of you] are becoming disciples in the name of Christ, and quitting the path of error; who are also receiving gifts, each as he is worthy, illumined through the name of this Christ.”

 

Dialogue with Trypho, Ch. 53, “Hence also we are strong in His faith and doctrine, since we have [this our] persuasion both from the prophets, and from those who throughout the world are seen to be worshippers of God in the name of that crucified One

 

“and being thus persuaded, they went into all the world, and taught these truths. Hence also we are strong in His faith and doctrine, since we have [this our] persuasion both from the prophets, and from those who throughout the world are seen to be worshippers of God in the name of that crucified one” The Writings of Justin Martyr and Athenagoras (1868) p.155 translated by Marcus Dods.

 

“We, who through the name of Jesus have believed as one man in God the Maker of all, have been stripped, through the name of His first-begotten Son, of the filthy garments, i.e., of our sins; and being vehemently inflamed by the word of His calling, we are the true high priestly race of God, as even God Himself bears witness, saying that in every place among the Gentiles sacrifices are presented to Him well-pleasing and pure” The Writings of Justin Martyr and Athenagoras (1868) p.245 translated by Marcus Dods.

 

“Nowhere is to be found its formula in these writings…This certainly suggests that Justin did not know the traditional text of Matthew 28:19” Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics (1951).

 

The Shepherd of Hermas: The shepherd of Hermas was a quite popular book in ancient times, but it is apocryphal, for it contains some doctrines that appear to be heretical, however it does support baptism in Jesus name. The following citations are related to passages dealing with baptism or are allusions to baptism. The name of Jesus was called or invoked upon the believer in baptism. The believers also were said to receive or bear the name of Jesus upon baptism.

 

Vision 3 Ch. 7 [15]:3, These are they who have heard the word, and wish to be baptized in the name of the Lord

 

Parable 8 6[72]:4 and still further were ashamed of the Name of the Lord, which was invoked upon them [in baptism].

 

Parable 9

12[89]:4 no one shall enter into the kingdom of God, except he receive the name of His Son.

12[89]:5 a man cannot enter into the kingdom of God except by the name of His Son

12[89]:8 whosoever shall not receive His name, shall not enter into the kingdom of God.

 

13[90]:3 Whosoever beareth the Name of the Son of God.

13[90]:7 These all," [saith he,] "received the name of the Son of God.

13[90]:5 "Listen," saith he. "The name of the Son of God is great and incomprehensible.

13[90]:6 Even those that bear His name with their whole heart. He Himself then is become their foundation, and He sustaineth them gladly, because they are not ashamed to bear His name.

 

15[92]:3-4 before a man bears the name of the Son of God he is dead; but when he receives the seal he lays aside his deadness, and obtains life. The seal, then, is the water: they descend into the water dead, and they arise alive. [Baptism] "thus to them also this seal was preached, and they availed themselves of it that they might enter into the kingdom of God

15[92]:7 [After baptism] came to the full knowledge of the name of the Son of God.

 

Chapter 16 these apostles and teachers who preached the name of the Son of God …preached it not only to those who were asleep, but themselves also gave them the seal of the preaching. Accordingly they descended with them into the water, and again ascended. [Baptism]

 

17[94]:4 all the nations that dwell under heaven, when they heard and believed, were called by the one name of God. So having received the seal [baptism]

 

Chapter 28 because He deemed you worthy to bear His name, that all your sins might be healed

 

The writings of Origen: Origen Adamantius (185-254) AD, was a martyr who mentioned “The adorable Trinity” in his commentary on John Book VI, but how can that be?, for we do know that the Second council of Constantinople, 553 AD issued an anathema against Origen for not believing in the Trinity; this is surely laughable. All fingers point to Basil of Caesarea as the author of such obvious forgery. The following line is totally out of context of the discussion and obviously inserted, “is no less in itself to him who yields himself to the divine power of the invocation of the Adorable Trinity, the beginning and source of divine gifts; for ‘there are diversities of gifts.’”

According to Professor Philip Schaff, “Origen was the greatest scholar of his age, and the most learned and gracious of all the ante-Nicene fathers.” Epiphanius, who was an opponent of Origen, mentions that the number of his works were six thousand, yet most of his writings have been destroyed and only a few corrupted books remain.

Tyrannius Rufinus (340-410) claims that the books Origen wrote had also been altered by heretics so he admits that he had so ‘smoothed and corrected’ the writings of Origen ‘as to leave nothing which could appear conflicting with our belief.’ Jerome was so angry with Rufinus for changing the text of Origen that he broke his friendship with him. So in De Principiis we clearly can see that the mentions of the Trinity are not from Origen and in the Homily on Exodus where the traditional Mt 28:19 formula appears unrelated to the subject at hand is another quite visible proof of the handywork of Rufinus. The work of Rufinus can be clearly seen for the wording is of an already developed Trinity and not of an incipient Trinity. Biblical scholars call any reference to later Nicean theology in Origin’s writings as “Rufinisms.” Forgery and Counter-forgery: The Use of Literary Deceit in Early Christian polemics (2013) by Bart D. Ehrman.

In the writings of Origen there is never a connection of the Trinity with Matthew. As a matter of fact the only three mentions of the traditional text of Matthew 28:19 occur in the Latin commentary translated by Rufinus and a close examination clearly reveals these as more “corrections” by Rufinus. From the following quotations and allusions of Matthew 28:19 from his works it is obvious that Origen did not know the traditional baptismal Text.

 

1. Commentary On The Gospel Of John: Book X, 7 “The words recorded in Matthew as spoken by Christ when risen from the dead to His disciples who were being sent out to teach all nations, "Behold, I am with you always, even to the end of the world." To those who are to know all that human nature can know while it still is here, is said with emphasis, "I am with you;" add as the rise of each new day upon the field of contemplation brings more days before the eyes of the blessed, therefore He says, ‘All the days till the end of the world.’”

2. Commentary On The Gospel Of John: Book X, 8 “He who is with His disciples who are sent out to teach all the nations, until the consummation”

 

3. Commentary On Matthew: Book X, 18 “And the Apostles on this account left Israel and did that which had been enjoined on them by the Saviour, “Make disciples of all the nations,” and, “Ye shall be My witnesses both in Jerusalem and in all Judea and Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth.

 

4. Commentary On Matthew: Book XII, 6 “So long, then, as we have Jesus with us fulfilling the promise which runs, “Lo, I am with you always unto the consummation of the age”

 

5. Against Celsus, Book II, Ch. 19 “Where two or three are gathered together in My name, there am I in the midst of you." And of the same nature is His promise to His disciples: "Lo, I am with you alway, even to the end of the world."

 

6. Against Celsus, Book II, Ch. 30 “for the apostles of Jesus to accomplish the task enjoined upon them by their Master, when He said, "Go and teach all nations.”

 

7. Against Celsus, Book II, Ch. 42 “that this Gospel of His should be preached throughout the whole world, and that His disciples should go among all nations and announce His doctrine”

 

8. DE PRINCIPIIS, Book II, Ch. 6 “His holy apostles, men ignorant and unlearned, taken from the ranks of tax-gatherers or fishermen, but who were filled with the power of His divinity, to itinerate throughout the world, that they might gather together out of every race and every nation a multitude of devout believers in Himself”

 

9. Homily 6, super. Ezechidem on Ezekiel, 16:4, " 'Neither wast thou washed in water to supple thee,' etc.: We, who have received the grace of baptism in the name of Jesus Christ, are washed unto salvation. Origen: Homilies 1-14 on Ezekiel (2010) translated by Thomas P. Scheck

 

We see that not even in his commentary on Matthew does he even quotes the phrase “The father and the Son and the Holy Ghost”, if there is a place where Origen should have quoted and exalted the Trinity and waxed eloquently about it, it would have been at the end of that commentary, yet we find zero mention of it in there, it is absolutely ignored. It is absolutely incredible that Origen would have said nothing about the traditional phrase when commenting on the only book that actually has that phrase. Origen was not a Trinitarian, that is why he was anathemized and his numerous writings destroyed.

 

The writings of Clement of Rome: The First Epistle to the Corinthians by Clement of Rome who died in 99 AD gives a clear indication that the name of Jesus was (invoked) in baptism. “And Now may the all-seeing God and Master "of spirits" and Lord "of all flesh" who chose the Lord Jesus Christ and us through him "to be his own people," grant to every soul over whom His magnificent and holy name has been invoked” Early Christian Fathers (1995) by Professor of Church History Cyril Richardson.

 

The Recognitions of Clement, Book I Chapter 39

“He instituted baptism by water among them, in which they might be absolved from all their sins on the invocation of His name”…“Subsequently also an evident proof of this great mystery is supplied in the fact, that every one who, believing in this Prophet who had been foretold by Moses, is baptized in His name

 

The Recognitions of Clement, Book I Chapter 73 “Welcomed by Zacchaeus” has the following: “how James the archbishop, standing on the top of the steps, had for seven successive days shown the whole people from the Scriptures of the Lord that Jesus is the Christ; and how, when all were acquiescing that they should be baptized by him in the name of Jesus

 

Citation of Clement by Eusebius

“But the presbyter taking home the youth committed to him, reared, kept, cherished, and finally baptized him. After this he relaxed his stricter care and watchfulness, with the idea that in putting upon him the seal of the Lord he had given him a perfect protection”

 

The writings of Clement of Alexandria: He never cites Mt 28:19; however he does cite baptism in the name. Stromata, VI, 5, 43; Apollonius “The Lord said unto the apostles: Should, then, any of Israel be willing to repent, so as to believe upon God through my name, his sins shall be forgiven him.”

 

Clement of Alexandria (1974) By John Ferguson, Clement's Excerpts from Theodotus

“It is easy to see why Theodotus laid such stress on baptism; baptism is baptism into the Name. [The name of our Saviour] The water, like the bread in the Eucharist and the oil in Unction, is sanctified and transformed by the power of the Name.”

 

Clement of Alexandria quotes Barnabas as follows

“See that the temple of the Lord be gloriously built. Learn, having received remission of sins; and having set our hope on the Name, let us become new, created again from the beginning”

 

Baptism in the Early Church (2009) by Everett Ferguson, p. 318 on Clement of Alexandria

“References to baptism "in the name of Jesus," "in his [Jesus] name." and "on the invocation of his name." such formula would agree with the description of baptism as "the baptism of Christ" (syrica; Latin - "the faith of Christ and baptism"), "the baptism of our Jesus," "the baptism of Jesus"

 

Irenaeus: “And then, again, when [do we bear] the image of the heavenly? Doubtless when he says, “Ye have been washed,” believing in the name of the Lord, and receiving His Spirit.” The Apostolic Fathers Against Heresies Book V XI (1885) by Phillip Schaff.

 

De Rebaptismate: In 258 AD the De Rebaptismate written by an anonymous writer talks about “heretics” and mentions or alludes to baptism in Jesus name over 30 times.

Section 1.

  1. have yet been baptized in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.
  2. that baptism which they have received outside the Church indeed, but still in the name of Jesus Christ our Lord
  3. just as if they were never baptized in the name of Jesus Christ.

In this section the writer admits that baptism in the name of Jesus is

“the ancient and memorable and most solemn observance”,

 “a matter once arranged and ordained”

“the most ancient observance”

“to have been rightly observed by those who were before us”

Section 3.

  1. but they had only been baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus

Section 4.

  1. because baptism in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ has gone before it
  2. that baptism which they have attained in the name of Jesus Christ
  3. have been baptized in the name of Jesus Christ

Section 5.

  1. be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ
  2. subsequent baptism …, that they received also the invocation of the name of Jesus Christ

Section 6

  1. had been baptized by the Lord's baptism
  2. that they should be baptized in the name of Christ Jesus,
  3. that the power of the name of Jesus invoked upon any man by baptism
  4. And he on whom, when he should be baptized, invocation should be made in the name of Jesus
  5. that former invocation of the name of Jesus
  6. this invocation of the name of Jesus
  7. although they were baptized in the name of Jesus
  8. although they were baptized with water in the name of the Lord
  9. Because it is of great importance whether a man is not baptized at all in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ

Section 7.

  1. that invocation of the name of Jesus
  2. Therefore ought this invocation of the name of Jesus

Section  10.

  1. So that the invocation of the name of Jesus, which cannot be done away
  2. one baptism, it must needs have been by the continued effect of the invocation of the name of Jesus

Section 11.

  1. and haply taken up in the name of Christ… it has been granted him to be baptized with water?

Section 12.

  1. For the invocation of the name of Jesus
  2. upon whom my name is called upon them
  3. the Jews and all the Gentiles upon whom the name of the Lord is called
  4. that very invocation of the name
  5. upon whom the name of the Lord Jesus, the Son of the living God, has not been invoked
  6. And thus men of … Jews and Gentiles, fully believing as they ought, are in like manner baptized
  7. But heretics who are already baptized in water in the name of Jesus Christ
  8. after the invocation of His name upon them

Section 13.

  1. although they were washed in His name

Section 14.

  1. being baptized in the name of Christ

Section 15.

  1. baptism is given by any one in the name of Jesus Christ,
  2. the most holy invocation of the name of Jesus Christ
    Again in this section the writer admits that baptism in the name of Jesus was “the custom and authority which so much claim our veneration for so long a time and for such great men”

 

The main argument of this writer was that there was no need to rebaptize heretics who had been baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, because of the power that abides in the name of Jesus Christ.

The second argument of this writer was that baptism in the name of Jesus was an ancient custom.

This tells us that in 258 AD there were “heretics” who had the ancient custom of baptism in the name of Jesus, which makes one wonder just where did those “heretics” learned such ancient baptism custom from, could it be that they got it from the early apostles?

 

Egyptian Coptic texts: Sir Ernest Alfred Wallis Budge (1857-1934) who was a curator at the British Museum was a scholar, translator and collector of ancient manuscripts. Budge was an expert in Semitic languages. Here is a translation of some texts from a manuscript describing events around the early 5th century, for we do know that Cyril lived from 376  444 AD, but according to Budge “The manuscript is undated, but there is little doubt that it was written in the second half of the 10th century of our era.” (E. A. Wallis Budge, Miscellaneous Coptic Texts in the Dialect of Upper Egypt, 1915, p. 637: Homily on the Dormition (Discourse on Mary Theotokos by Cyril, Archbishop of Jerusalem):

 

·      “And I, Cyril ...baptized him [Gastôr] into the great Resurrection of the Christ.” (Discourse on Mary Theotokos by Cyril, Archbishop of Jerusalem, p. 627)

·      “I [Michael] tell you that through Jesus the Christ, in Whose Name ye received baptism, no evil shall befall you.” (A Discourse on the Compassion of God and on the Freedom Speech of the Archangel Michael by Severus, Archbishop of Antioch, p. 744)

·      “And [Arôs] said unto him [bishop], ‘Baptize thou me and my wife, and my son Mercurius, and my men-servants, and my maidservants, and these Dog-faces in the Name of Jesus Christ.’” (The Martyrdom of Mercurius, p. 1166)

 

Let us count the biblical witnesses: The following 7 texts that mention baptism in the name of Jesus were written years before the Gospel of Matthew was written.

“He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved…In my name” Mark 16:16

“start from Jerusalem and tell this message in my name to - all nations.” Luke 24:47

“Jerusalem…of every nation…be baptized - in the name of Jesus Christ” Peter

“the people of Samaria...were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus” Philip

“be baptized and wash your sins away, calling on his name.” Ananias Acts 22:16

“the Gentiles...baptized in the name of Jesus Christ.” Peter (Acts 10)

“Corinthians - were baptized…name of our Lord Jesus Christ” Paul (Bezae Codex)

 

The post-Apostolic Traditional baptismal citations: The biblical writings besides the Matthean text do not show any traditional baptismal formula. There are a few post-apostolic texts which do mention the traditional baptismal formula, however many of those texts are believed to be interpolations. An interpolation means that someone later on changed the original words in the writings. Another curious detail about these ancient citations is that none of them allude or mention the Gospel of Matthew as the source of their citation.

100 (?) AD The Didache Chapter 7, baptismal texts widely denounced as interpolation.

110 (?) AD Ignatius, Letter to the Philippians, an already proven fraudulent letter.

140 (?) AD Justinus, “Quaestiones et responsiones ad orthodoxos”, an obvious forgery.

157 (?) Justin Martyr, First Apology, LXI, approximate citation, no verbatim citation.

175 (?) AD Tatian, The Diatesseron, The commentaries of Ephrem proves that it was corrupted.

183 (?) AD Irenaeus, Against Heresies, Bk. 3, ch. XVII, there are many interpolations in his texts.

203 (?) AD Hippolytus, Against Noetus, The writings of Hippolytus have too many interpolations.

208 (?) AD, Tertullian, On Baptism & Against Praxeas many interpolations in Tertullian’s texts.

 

There are less than 10 citations with the traditional text before 240 AD and from texts which are unreliable. If many learned scholars have already dismissed some of these texts as fraudulent fabrications, why do I still include them here? Well to show the lengths the Traditionalists went to in order to deceive people. But their frauds are being exposed at the highest levels of Academia. All the textual evidence leads us to conclude that the traditional baptismal phrase probably arouse sometime between 230 AD and 240 AD and took many years before it became well known and accepted.

 

The post-Apostolic Non-Traditional baptismal citations: The following 14 apocryphal texts that mention the name of Jesus in baptism were written earlier than the year 240 AD. Although many of these texts are indeed fictitious, there are no claims of them being interpolated, which is indeed quite different.

“the whole people - be baptized by him in the name of Jesus” James (Rec. of Clement)

“he baptized them in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ” John (The Acts of John)

“baptized all of you…in the baptism of the Lord.” Bartholomew (The Martyrdom of Bart.)

“In thy name, O Jesu Christ, let it be unto these souls for remission of sins” Thomas

“We, who have received the grace of baptism in the name of Jesus Christ” Origen

“wish to be baptized in the name of the Lord” Hermas

 “they who have received the baptism in his name” Philip

“Baptize me in the name of Jesu Christ” Calixtus

“and baptized him in the name of Jesu Christ” Laurence

and afterwards, baptized him in the name of Christ.” Thaddeus

And is not baptism itself…was imposed the name of our Saviour.” Theodotus

“In your name, O my Lord Jesus Christ, I am this last day baptized” Thecla

“having received the remission of our sins, and having hoped upon the name of the Lord” Barnabas

“He instituted baptism by water among them, in which they might be absolved from all their sins on the invocation of His name” Clement

 

The Epistula Apostolorum from 160 AD is fictitious but it has numerous references to baptism in the name of Jesus.

 “41. And he said to us, ‘Go and preach…whoever will hear and believe in me he [will receive from] you the light of the seal through [me] and baptism through me”.

 

Comparing the citations: So there are 7 apostolic texts and 14 post-apostolic texts which support baptism in the name of Jesus, which gives us a total of 19 witnesses, (Some before the Gospel of Matthew was written and others before 240 AD). While only 1 (interpolated?) apostolic text and 8 (interpolated?) post-apostolic texts which support the traditional baptismal formula. Among these witness there were seven Apostles (Peter, Philip, Paul, John, Bartholomew, Thomas, Thaddeus); then James, Mark, Luke, Ananias, Barnabas, Clement, Origen, Hermas, Calixtus, Lawrence, Theodotus and Thecla.

 

Although the traditional baptismal formula is mentioned somewhat credible after 240 AD there are is not one single surviving text of Matthew with that phrase. The oldest verified traditional text, “The Codex Vaticanus” dates from 325-350 AD, that is about 100 years of distance and it itself is heavely interpolated. And the Greek texts used for the “Textus Receptus” are even more recent. The KJV was translated using this “Textus Receptus” manuscript.

 

The texts of the following 7 post-apostolic witnesses who mention the name of Jesus in baptism were written earlier than “The Codex Vaticanus”.

“Go forth, make disciples of all the peoples, and they shall believe in me” Aphraates

“Go ye forth - and teach ye all the nations in My Name in every place.” Annarikhus

“the naming of the saviour Jesus, that mystically takes place upon the water” Macarius

“being baptized and calling on the name of Christ” Porphyry

“those who were baptized into Christ” Methodius

“Go out into the whole world and proclaim my gospel to the whole of creation and baptize all the Gentiles” Ephrem

“Go, and make disciples of all the nations in My Name.” Eusebius

“the nations - in the Name of - Jesus Christ -marked [baptized] with His Name.” Eusebius

Our most prolific witness to the great commission being in the name of Jesus is Eusebius, who before 325 AD, makes over 100 references to the Great Commission being in his name.

 

Of course we also need to mention De Rebaptismate written anonymously around 258 AD which over 30 times mentions distinctly and directly baptism in the name of Jesus.

 

So here we have Annarikhus, Aphraates, Ephrem, Eusebius, Macarius, Methodius and even Porphyry who was an enemy of Christianity, mentioning baptism in the name of Jesus.

And of course we still have more mentions of baptism in the name of Christ throughout the early centuries from advocates of such baptism like Marcion, Praxeas, Valentinus, Apelles, Theophronius, Eutychius, Eunomius and many more, and of course keeping in mind that all these were before 350 AD.

 

Let us see, we have one uncertain witness for the traditional Matthew text, the highly corrupted Codex Vaticanus (325-350 AD). Yet before 350 we have no reliable witness of such phrase being in the Gospel of Matthew. There are some texts which appear interpolated or might actually be original which mention the traditional phrase, yet there is no mention that such a phrase was in the Gospel of Matthew.

 

All these witnesses make it quite clear that before 350 AD baptism was often in the name of Jesus and that there was an earlier shorter form of Matthew 28:19 which did not have the traditional text. It is quite obvious that the traditional text of Matthew did not exist in the 1st Century and may have come first in the scene late in the 2nd century or early in the 3rd century, but did not become well known until the 4th century. The earliest possible date for this appearance appears to be sometime after 192 AD, about the same time that Pantænus returned from India with the Hebrew Gospel of Matthew. (Such coincidence makes plausible the theory that one of Pantænus’ disciples perhaps Alexander or some other made the Greek translation of this Hebrew text and inserted into it that interpolation, which would explain why there are no Greek texts with a variant of this text.) However it is unlikely that the next two successors of Pantænus would have made such a translation for they (Clement and Origen) were Monarchians.

            I wonder why would the finding of the Hebrew Gospel of Matthew was so noteworthy at the end of the second century.  Could it have been that there was no complete Gospel of Matthew at this time and all there was were scattered pieces or poor copies that some had made from that gospel?  I mean if the Gospel of Matthew was already available in Greek then why it should it matter if a Hebrew Gospel had been found? I am beginning to suspect that there was no Greek Gospel of Matthew until the Hebrew one was brought from India or if one existed it was a poor translation. And if this was big news because it was the original Gospel of Matthew, then it is reasonable to ask, just where did such an important document ended up at? Perhaps it ended up at the library of Caesarea, it is a strong possibility.

            Clement took over the leadership of the Alexandiarn school.in 190 AD just before Pantænus departed for India. Pantænus died soon after returning from India in 193 AD but some believe he was ill and died in 211 AD. It is more likely that he died in 193 AD for otherwise he would have been restored to the leadership of the Alexandrian school. So we know that it could not have been Pantænus who translated the Hebrew Gospel. Clement could not have the translator either for two reasons, he cited baptism in the name of Jesus and he was driven out of Alexandria by the persecution under Severus, which begun in 192 AD. There is not much time to do translations in times of persecution.

In 203 Origen restored the Alexandrian school and he makes no mention of Pantænus. We know that it was not Origen which did such translation, for he cited baptism in the name of Jesus. (His citations of the traditional baptism are interpolations that were done by Rufinus). Origen was over the Alexandrian school from 203 to 2014, about 211–212 he paid a visit to Pope Zephyrinus who was a monarchian and who appears to have baptized in the name of Jesus, he was disappointed with Zephyrinus not on theological grounds but because Zephyrinus was too lax.  In 214 Origen and Ambrose fled to Caesarea. Origen returned to Alexandria in 216 and then left in 230 AD. Origen spent most of the rest of his life in Caesarea, where he begun a great library, which at his death was taken over by his disciple Pamphilus.

We do know that the school of Alexandria had the original gospel of Matthew, and we know that from 2003 AD up to 230 AD, except for a few brief periods, it was under the leadership of Origen who mentioned baptism in the name of Jesus and was a monarchian. These facts make the theory that this Gospel already had that interpolation before it was brought from India, highly unlikely. The translation of either the original or a copy from the original gospel must have been done after Origen left in 230 AD.

It could be that in his first or second trip Origen brought either the original or a copy of the original gospel of Matthew, although Jerome hints that it was Pamphilus the disciple of Origen who brought the original gospel of Matthew to Caesarea. No wonder Eusebius could cite Matthew so confidently because he either had the original gospel of Matthew or a direct copy.

 

Others have written it the same way: Some others have written Matthew 28:19 in the same manner; here are just a few samples.

 

“Christ commanded Peter to feed his sheep (Joh. xxi.) ; but he commanded all the rest to do the same (Mat. xxviii.), saying, Go ye therefore and teach all nations, baptizing them in My name.”

“Therefore we ought to do our utmost endeavours to cause the gospel to be preached throughout all the world, as it is written (Matt, xxviii., Mark xvi., Luke xxiv.) All power is given unto Me in heaven and in earth; go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in my name.” A Small Treatise Against the Primacy of the Pope (1537) p. 108, 113 by Edward VI of England

 

Benjamin Broomhall in his book Evangelisation of the World, a Missionary Band (1885) p. 126 writes “Go ye and teach all nations, baptising them in My name.”

 

Joel Tiffany in his book Modern Spiritualism Compared with Christianity (1855) p. 417 writes “Christ said, Go, teach all men, baptising them in my name.”

 

The Oldest Resurrection Documents (1917) p. 4, 5 by Professor Albert Joseph Edmunds, who wrote the following recreation of Matthew 28:19: “Go ye therefore and made disciples of all the nations IN MY NAME.”

 

Ursprung und Anfänge des Christentums (G) Origin and Beginnings of Christianity (1920) by Professor of Ancient history Eduard Meyer, says “Now he returns to the Mount of Transfiguration to his disciples and to proclaim the reasons for his rule on earth, so he says ‘go and make disciples of and teach all nations in my name, teaching them to observe what I have commanded you all things, and behold, I am with you always, to the end of the world.’”

 

The Matthean Redaction of a Primitive Apostolic commissioning: An exegesis of Matthew 28:16-20 (1974) by Benjamin Jerome Hubbard states “that Matthew had an Easter account, in which the Resurrected One introduces himself to the disciples as the one whom all authority in heaven and on earth is given, who sends the disciples out to preach the Gospel to all peoples, to baptize them in his name”

 

“Jesus said, “Go into all the world and make disciples, baptizing them in My name”

December 31, 2000 by Dr. John MacArthur, Jr.

 

Yahshua, the Man Behind the Glory (2010) by Jarid Miller has “He then lifted his hands blessing them saying, ‘All power is given to me in both heaven and earth. Go and teach all nations, baptizing them in my name.’”

 

“He gives us the great commission – go into all the world, making disciples and baptizing them in my name.” March 28, 2011 by Minister Andy Stoddard

 

< <--- Beginning <--- Chap 14 === Chap 16 ---> Ending --->>
Home